What caused the Salem witch trial hysteria of 1692 documents?
Classifying the Documents (cont.) The Salem Witch Trial Hysteria of 1692 was caused by a cultural belief in witches by the Christian Puritans, and social factors such as the young, unmarried women of Salem accused the married or widowed older women because they were jealous of their status in society.
What social conditions led to the Salem witch trials?
On the other hand, the physiological theories for the mass hysteria and witchcraft accusations include both fungus poisoning and undiagnosed encephalitis. Linnda Caporael argues that the girls suffered from convulsive ergotism, a condition caused by ergot, a type of fungus, found in rye and other grains.
What fungus caused the Salem witch trials?
Does Ergotism still exist?
Outbreaks of ergotism in livestock do still occur, however. The ergot alkaloids are derivatives of ergotine, the most active being amides of lysergic acid. Ergot alkaloids are compounds derived from the parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea, which grows on rye as well as other grains.
Why is Ergotism called St Anthony’s fire?
The frequent epidemics of ergotism were called Holy Fire or st-Antony’s Fire in the Middle Ages, because of the burning sensations resulting in gangrene of limbs. It was caused by eating rye bread contaminated with the fungus Claviceps purpurea.
Is there a cure for Ergotism?
The cornerstone of therapy in ergot toxicity is to discontinue the use of caffeine, cigarettes, and all ergot-containing medications. Although multiple different therapies have been recommended for acute toxicity, no specific treatment is uniformly recommended in chronic toxicity.
What happens if you eat ergot?
There is a high risk of poisoning, and it can be fatal. Early symptoms of poisoning include nausea, vomiting, muscle pain and weakness, numbness, itching, and rapid or slow heartbeat. Ergot poisoning can progress to gangrene, vision problems, confusion, spasms, convulsions, unconsciousness, and death.
How does ergot cause gangrene?
This type of ergotism causes gangrene to occur by constricting the blood vessels leading to the extremities. Because of the decrease in blood flow, infections occur in the extremities, accompanied by burning pain. Once gangrene has occurred, the fingers, toes, etc.
Can Ergot poisoning be cured?
How Can Ergot Poisoning Be Treated? There is no antidote, so treatment involves removing the animals from the source of the ergot and alleviating the symptoms. If found early enough and before severe clinical signs develop, animals can recover, but once gangrene has started, there is little treatment.
What are symptoms of Ergotism?
Convulsive symptoms include painful seizures and spasms, diarrhea, paresthesias, itching, mental effects including mania or psychosis, headaches, nausea and vomiting. Usually the gastrointestinal effects precede central nervous system effects.
How do you prevent ergot?
NDSU suggests rotating cereals and grasses with non-susceptible crops for one year or longer. “The ergot sclerotia usually do not survive in the soil for more than one year. Therefore, summer fallow or crop rotation to a non-cereal crop for at least one year will help reduce ergot.”
What causes ergot?
Ergot is a plant disease caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, which infects the developing grains of cereals and grasses. Ergot symptoms become evident during kernel formation, when ergot bodies are formed in place of kernels.
What causes ergot in rye?
Ergot, fungal disease of cereal grasses, especially rye, caused by species of the ascomycete fungus Claviceps. The disease decreases the production of viable grains by infected plants and can contaminate harvests. Ergot is commonly associated with rye infected by C.
What is the drug ergot used for?
Dihydroergotamine and ergotamine belong to the group of medicines known as ergot alkaloids. They are used to treat severe, throbbing headaches, such as migraine and cluster headaches. Dihydroergotamine and ergotamine are not ordinary pain relievers.
Can ergot be used for abortion?
Though ergot was known to cause abortions in cattle and humans, it was not a recognized use for it as abortion was illegal in most countries, thus evidence for its use in abortion is unknown.
How much ergot is safe?
It takes about 10 intact ergot bodies to weigh one gram. A 1,200 pound cow therefore could safely consume up to 12 grams of ergot in a 24 hour period.” To reduce or control problems associated with ergot-contaminated grain, it may be diluted with clean grain to reduce the total percentage of ergot, said Doig.
What happens if you eat moldy rye bread?
Rye Bread Outbreaks of ergot poisoning, which also cause intense convulsions, “gangrenous symptoms,” and death, have dropped off since the 19th century, and the last big one happened in a French village in 1951. You shouldn’t try any of these at home, but this one is seriously bad news, so lay off the moldy rye.
How can you tell if rye bread has gone bad?
How to tell if packaged rye bread is bad or spoiled? The best way is to smell and look at the bread: discard any bread that has an off smell or appearance; if mold appears, discard the entire loaf.
Is bread mold penicillin?
For many years, scientists knew that certain molds killed some bacteria. However, researchers needed to understand how to harness this antibacterial microbe and to manufacture enough of the substance before they could make a useful medicine. 1. Penicillium mold naturally produces the antibiotic penicillin.